Programming codes for CNC lathes Machine

Programming codes for CNC lathes Machine are:
  • G00, Motion Positioning
Rapid positioning motion is motion without feeds.
G00 programming format is:
N .... / G00 / X ... .. / Z ... ...
  • G01, linear interpolation motion with feeds.
That is a straight cutting movement in the direction parallel to the axes, or
cutting to form a certain angle (motion interpolation).
The command format: N ... / G01 / X ± ... / Z ± ... / F ...
  • G02 and G03 circular interpolation
G02: clockwise circular interpolation
G03: circular interpolation counter clockwise
(Motion direction / counter-clockwise from the position determined
chisel on a work piece)
Input format: N ... / G02 / X ± ... / Z ± ... / F ...
: N ... / G03 / X ± ... / Z ± ... / F ...
  • G78, Screw cutting cycle
Used for turning threaded longitudinal direction parallel to
axis machines.
Format command: N ... / G78 / X ± ... / Z ± ... / C ... / H ...
  • G84, turning cycle length
G84 is an order turning lathe with chisel-shaped motion
cycle, which include: movement
1: chisel cutting preparation,movement
2: cutting to length, movement
3: cutting edge and the motion
4: return to the starting point begins the movement.
Format command: N ... / G84 / X ± ... / Z ± ... / F ... / H ...
  • G92, Records and Decision Point Zero
G92 is an order of recording and setting the machine zero point
the absolute price programming.
Programming Format: N ... / G92
»»  CNC PROGRAMMING...“Programming codes for CNC lathes Machine”

How Soft ONE-CNC Organizes CAD Geometry

Entities are the geometric information lowest level. Soft ONE-CNC currently supports the following CAD entities:
  • Lines
  • Arcs
  • Circles
If you use plotlines or CAD blocks to group your drawing data, explode them just before you write the DXF file. Then you can use the undo command to restore the grouped state.
Leads are short straight lines at the start and end of a shape. They are used to avoid directly piercing on the edge of a part. Soft ONE-CNC places leads automatically at the appropriate location of a shape. The cutting cycle is started at the beginning of the lead-in and terminated at the end of the lead-out; thus ensuring that a 'dirty' cut does not ruin the edges of the shapes.

Connectors are straight lines which connect the shapes with each other. The burner head travels along connectors at high speed (fast travel) between cutting and marking. Connectors can be created automatically by Soft ONE-CNC for you.

Shapes contain of a number of connected entities. Shapes may be closed, i.e. the end of the last entity connects with the start of the first entity, or a shape may be open. Closed shapes can be checked for direction of travel, i.e. clockwise or counter clockwise. Open shapes cannot be checked for direction. It is the operator's responsibility to check the shapes. These paths will be deleted from the tool path automatically.
»»  CNC PROGRAMMING...“How Soft ONE-CNC Organizes CAD Geometry”

Nesting and Soft ONE-CNC for Generation of NC Code

You can use a nest the parts manually or third party nesting program. A skilled CAD people can nest the parts efficiently using AutoCAD alone. This manual procedure is often economical if the parts are many different parts and complex of greatly different complexity have to be nested, as it is often the case for shipbuilding.

Open a new drawing for the nest. Place one or more rectangles on the reference that indicates the size of your stock plates. Insert the all blocked parts randomly on the drawing. Nest the parts starting with the larges ones using the move and rotate commends until all parts are nested. You may want to place some parts in through holes, such as small brackets. All entities with outside cuts within a through hole have to be changed to the INSET layer. They cannot contain any inside cuts!

The resulting drawing contains all the required information to produce the NC-Code for a number of parts to be cut from one plate. Before exporting the drawing to a DXF file explode all blocks and plotlines. It is advisable to freeze or turn off all layers that are not required for NC processing. You can save disk space and time by writing just the entities to the file. When prompted by AutoCAD  for  'Number  of  decimal  places/(Entities)'  enter  'E'  ('O'  for  objects  in AutoCAD 13) and select the entities by dragging a rectangle.

Start execution of Soft ONE-CNC for generation of NC code with the following steps:
  •  Generation Æ   Complete path /Marking path/Cutting path for generation and optimization of all paths/marking paths/cutting paths.
  • File Æ Save NC code - for saving CNC code according to preference settings from “Tools” menu
  • View Æ Simulation for checking the tool path.

»»  CNC PROGRAMMING...“Nesting and Soft ONE-CNC for Generation of NC Code”

Soft ONE CNC Features

Soft ONE-CNC generates NC-code from AUTOCAD “doff” files and TRIBON “gen” files for computer controlled burning machines with plasma gas cutting, arc cutting, laser cutting and other manufacturing applications. Soft ONE-CNC is designed to run in Windows 2000/XP.

The GUI (graphical user interface) makes it easy to learn. A new user can create reliable NC-code within the first ten minutes of using Soft ONE-CNC. Soft ONE–CNC features: 
  • Works like a graphical NC postprocessor for Trion users
  • Read and convert to NC codes instruction of bevel from Trion “gen” files
  • Read and convert to NC codes AutoCAD and other software which can export DXF files.
  • Easy to change bevel codes
  • Separating process entity by colors
  • Export nesting plates to AutoCAD DXF performing different colors and layers for each process
  • All duplicate entities, i.e. identical lines or arcs, are automatically deleted
  • The user allows to set the lead-in and lead-out length independently. You can create NC-code with no leads, lead-ins only or lead-ins and lead-outs.
  • Optimize automatically the complete path from the DXF file for reducing the cutting time process. The each shapes layer are processed from the bottom left corner to the upper right corner.
  • Calculates the processed parts area, minus any holes. Generate a report for the nesting plate with all necessary information for production Simulation on the screen processes.
  • Mark using rapid travel speed
  • Generate marking or cutting path only
  • Allow the user to set-up extension of the output NC files, the input filters, motion settings as well as bevel settings of the resulted file.
  • Works with both standards: G-codes or ESSI with or without bevel

»»  CNC PROGRAMMING...“Soft ONE CNC Features”

The Advantage and Disadvantage of Anilam Crusader and 1100 CNC Machine

The lab is equipped with some different CNC mills. To help you choose the right machine for your needs, this article lists the strengths and weaknesses of each of the machines.

Anilam Crusader
           There are two crusader mills in the lab. They are both 2-axis CNC machines. The user interface is primitive and simple with limited capabilities. Canned cycles for simple shapes are available.

  • Simple interface, easy to learn and master 
  • Since it is only a 2-axis machine, you need to specify only the feed rate and toolpath in your CAM program very reliable 
  • Some canned cycles available for various geometric shapes. (spirals, ellipses, etc.)

    • No 3-axis capability 
    • Tool changes and z feed must be done manually. limited bed width (max 12” Y movement). Spindle speed limited to 2800 rpm

      There is one 1100 series 2-axis milling machine. It provides an easier programming interface than the Crusaders.

      • Simple interface, more capabilities than the Crusader series 
      • Since it is only a 2-axis machine, you need to specify only the feed rate and toolpath in your CAM program The canned cycles provided are easy to program directly on the machine. The 1100 has a power feed Z-axis. (manually controlled)
        »»  CNC PROGRAMMING...“The Advantage and Disadvantage of Anilam Crusader and 1100 CNC Machine”

        The Advantage and Disadvantage of 1400 Series and Maatsura CNC Machine

        1400 Series
                 There is one 1400 series 3-axis milling machine in the lab. It provides z-axis but because of the 3-axis capability more time is required to learn, set-up and operate the 1400.

        • Full 3-axis capabilities
        • The 1400 sees little use and is frequently available, unlike the other CNC machines
        • Controller offers a plethora of capabilities, including “virtually” machining your part before actually cutting
        • CAM-generated programs require Z information, feed rate and tool path
        • Only 5” of travel in the Z direction. This makes including a keyless chuck in your tool set impractical
        • Limited bed width (max 12” Y movement). Interface and setup are more complicated. Tool changes are done manually
        • Spindle speed limited to 2800 rpm
                The Matsuura is more accurate, provides automatic tool change and 3-axis control.
        • Accurate to within +-.0003 inches
        • 3-axis control and tool changes are automatic. Holds up to 20 tools.
        • Spindle speeds up to 6000 rpm. Larger bed size than other CNC mills. Flood coolant.
        A Matsuura license is required before use the machine is permitted. Controller is
        »»  CNC PROGRAMMING...“The Advantage and Disadvantage of 1400 Series and Maatsura CNC Machine”